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Mick Mannock

Mick Mannock


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Edward 'Mick' Mannock, filho de Edward e Julia Mannock, nasceu em Preston Barracks, Brighton, em 24 de maio de 1887. Edward Mannock era um cabo do regimento escocês real e a família estava constantemente em movimento. Quando criança, Mick viveu na Inglaterra, Escócia, Irlanda e Índia.

Enquanto estava na Índia, Mick contraiu uma infecção e ficou cego. Por fim, ele recuperou a visão, mas pelo resto da vida teve dificuldade de enxergar com o olho esquerdo. Depois que Edward Mannock voltou da Guerra dos Bôeres, ele abandonou sua esposa e quatro filhos. Mick, que sofreu com a fúria do pai quando estava bêbado, revelou mais tarde que ficou satisfeito quando soube que seu pai havia deixado a casa da família. No entanto, a família agora era muito pobre e Mick teve que abandonar seus estudos na primeira oportunidade para conseguir algum dinheiro tão necessário. Após uma série de trabalhos braçais, Mick encontrou trabalho como engenheiro de telefonia.

Mick se interessou por política e, quando jovem, tornou-se um socialista comprometido. Jim Eyles, um amigo próximo disse mais tarde: "Mick disse a todos que conheceu que todo homem deve se preparar para a nova era. Os oprimidos do mundo estavam prestes a ter sua chance finalmente; era um dever dos homens fazer o melhor desta oportunidade pela qual os líderes emergentes das novas idéias sofreram tanto. " Mick falou em reuniões políticas e Jim Eyes mais tarde comentou como ficou surpreso que esse jovem "que havia sido arrastado para a mais terrível miséria, pudesse competir com essas classes bem nascidas e bem-educadas".

Em fevereiro de 1914, os empregadores de Mick Mannock, a National Telephone Company, o enviaram para trabalhar na Turquia. Quando a guerra foi declarada em 4 de agosto de 1914, Mick tentou voltar para a Inglaterra. A Turquia formou uma aliança de defesa com a Alemanha e Mick percebeu que estava em perigo. No entanto, antes que pudesse providenciar o transporte, Mick foi preso pelas autoridades turcas e colocado em um campo de concentração. Depois de várias tentativas de fuga, que resultaram em longos períodos de confinamento solitário em um 6ft. gaiola, Mick acabou sendo autorizado a partir para a Inglaterra em abril de 1915.

Assim que Mick Mannock voltou para casa, ele se alistou no Exército Britânico. Ele logo foi promovido ao posto de sargento-mor, mas sua saúde estava ruim e o exército o considerou impróprio para deveres militares. Em março de 1916, ele conseguiu obter uma transferência para os Royal Engineers como oficial cadete. Embora tivesse muito pouca escolaridade formal, Mick descobriu que podia competir com seus companheiros bem educados e não demorou muito para alcançar o posto de segundo-tenente.

No verão de 1916, Mannock começou a ler nos jornais sobre as façanhas de Albert Ball, o maior ás da aviação da Grã-Bretanha. Ball, que ainda não tinha vinte anos, já havia abatido onze aeronaves alemãs. Mannock pediu uma transferência para o Royal Flying Corps e em agosto de 1916, ele foi enviado para a Escola de Aeronáutica Militar em Reading.

Mannock tinha uma aptidão natural para voar. O capitão Chapman, um dos homens responsáveis ​​pelo treinamento de Mick, relatou mais tarde que: "Ele fez seu primeiro vôo solo com apenas algumas horas de instrução, pois parecia dominar os rudimentos de vôo com sua primeira hora no ar e a partir de então em jogou a máquina sobre como ele agradou. " O capitão James McCudden, que mais tarde se tornaria um dos maiores ases voadores da Grã-Bretanha, foi outro instrutor que ficou impressionado com as habilidades de Mick Mannock como piloto.

Em março de 1917, foi decidido que Mannock estava pronto para ser enviado para a Frente Ocidental. Mannock chegou a St. Omer, na França, em 6 de abril de 1917. No início, a personalidade de Mannock e as opiniões políticas perturbaram os outros pilotos. O tenente Lional Blaxland mais tarde relembrou sua primeira impressão de Mannock: "Ele era diferente. Seus modos, fala e familiaridade não eram apreciados. Os homens novos geralmente tomavam seu tempo e ouviam as mãos mais experientes; Mannock era o completo oposto. Ele oferecia idéias sobre tudo: como a guerra estava indo, como deveria ser travada, o papel dos pilotos batedores, o que estava errado ou certo com nossas máquinas.A maioria dos homens em sua posição, com isso quero dizer um homem com sua formação, teria se calado. "

Logo depois de chegar à França, Mannock ouviu a notícia de que Albert Ball, o homem cujo exemplo o inspirou a ingressar no Royal Flying Corps, havia sido abatido e morto. No mesmo dia, o capitão Nixon, líder da patrulha de Mannock, também foi morto durante uma missão para destruir balões de observação alemães.

Mannock teve dificuldade em se ajustar aos deveres de combate e teve que esperar até 7 de junho de 1917 antes de fazer sua primeira 'morte' confirmada. Antes que ele pudesse aumentar seu total, ele recebeu um ferimento na cabeça durante um dogfight com dois pilotos alemães.

Mannock foi enviado de volta à Inglaterra para se recuperar. Mick foi ficar com sua mãe, mas ficou consternado ao descobrir que sua mãe, assim como seu pai, agora era alcoólatra. Ele também descobriu que sua irmã, Jessie, estava trabalhando como prostituta em Birmingham. Chateado com o estado de sua família, Mick estava ansioso para voltar à França e, desesperadamente com falta de pilotos treinados, a RFC concordou que ele poderia retornar ao trabalho.

Depois de retornar à França em julho, Mannock rapidamente desenvolveu uma reputação como um dos pilotos mais talentosos da RFC. Nas primeiras duas semanas depois de voltar para a Frente Ocidental, ele venceu quatro combates de cães em seu SE-5a. Isso lhe deu nova confiança e no dia 16 de agosto ele abateu quatro aeronaves em um dia. Na manhã seguinte, ele somou mais duas vitórias ao seu total. No dia 17 de setembro, ele ganhou a Cruz Militar por afastar várias aeronaves inimigas enquanto destruía três balões de observação alemães. No mês seguinte, ele foi premiado com uma barra de sua Cruz Militar. A citação oficial dizia: "Ele atacou uma formação de cinco máquinas inimigas com uma mão e abateu uma fora de controle; enquanto estava envolvido com uma máquina inimiga, foi atacado por duas outras, uma das quais ele derrubou no chão."

Mannock foi profundamente afetado pela quantidade de homens que estava matando. Em seu diário, ele registrou uma visita ao local onde uma de suas vítimas caiu perto da linha de frente: "A jornada para as trincheiras foi bastante nauseante - pernas de homens mortos saindo pelas laterais com canhões e botas ainda calçadas - pedaços de ossos e crânios com o cabelo despenteado e toneladas de equipamentos e roupas espalhados. Esse tipo de coisa, junto com o forte fedor de cemitério e o corpo morto e mutilado do piloto combinaram para me perturbar por alguns dias. "

Mannock ficou especialmente chateado quando viu uma de suas vítimas pegar fogo em seu caminho para o chão. A partir dessa data, Mick Mannock sempre carregou consigo um revólver na cabine. Como disse ao amigo, o tenente MacLanachan: "Os outros caras riem de mim por carregar um revólver. Eles acham que vou derrubar uma máquina com ele, mas estão errados. O motivo de eu ter comprado foi para acabar comigo mesmo assim que eu ver os primeiros sinais de chamas. "

O medo do fogo de Mannock foi agravado pela decisão do Alto Comando Britânico de não permitir que os pilotos do Royal Flying Corps carregassem pára-quedas. Mannock acreditava que era injusto negar ao aviador britânico o direito de ter pára-quedas quando os pilotos alemães os usavam com sucesso há vários meses. Ele estava especialmente irritado com o principal motivo dado para esta decisão: "É opinião da diretoria que a presença de tal aparelho pode prejudicar o espírito de luta dos pilotos e levá-los a abandonar as máquinas que, de outra forma, seriam capazes de retornar à base para reparar."

Em 22 de julho de 1917, Mannock foi promovido a capitão. Como comandante de vôo, ele foi capaz de introduzir uma nova abordagem para o vôo de combate. Mannock acreditava que "os dias do lutador solitário haviam passado e o combate aéreo era agora uma questão de unidades de combate coordenadas e planejadas que podiam infligir o máximo de dano e o mínimo de perdas".

Em fevereiro de 1918, Mannock tornou-se comandante de vôo do 74 Squadron. Os três meses seguintes viram mais 36 vitórias. Mannock tinha ultrapassado o total de 44 mortes de Albert Ball e em 20 de julho ele abateu um Albatros, dando-lhe 58 vitórias, uma a mais do que o recorde britânico de James McCudden. Em junho foi promovido ao posto de major e no mês seguinte tornou-se comandante do 85 Squadron.

Em 26 de julho, o Major Mannock ofereceu-se para ajudar um recém-chegado, Donald Inglis, a obter sua primeira vitória. Depois de abater um Albatros atrás da linha de frente alemã, os dois homens voltaram para casa. Ao cruzar as trincheiras, os lutadores foram recebidos com uma enorme salva de tiros terrestres. O motor da aeronave de Mannock foi atingido e imediatamente pegou fogo e caiu atrás das linhas alemãs. O corpo de Mannock foi encontrado a 250 metros dos destroços de sua máquina. Ele não disparou seu revólver, mas acredita-se que ele possa ter saltado de seu avião em chamas pouco antes de ele cair.

Após sua morte, Mick Mannock foi condecorado com a Cruz Vitória por: "um exemplo notável de coragem destemida, habilidade notável, devoção ao dever e abnegação que nunca foi superada". A Victoria Cross de Mannock foi apresentada a seu pai no Palácio de Buckingham em julho de 1919. Edward Mannock também recebeu outras medalhas de seu filho, embora Mick tivesse estipulado em seu testamento que seu pai não deveria receber nada de sua propriedade. Logo depois, as medalhas de Mannock foram vendidas por £ 5. Eles já foram recuperados e podem ser vistos no Museu da Força Aérea Real em Hendon.

Conheci Mick em uma partida de críquete em Wellingborough. Fiquei impressionado com ele imediatamente. Ele era um jovem bem-apessoado, embora não fosse o que se chamaria bem vestido; na verdade, ele estava um pouco surrado. Perguntei-lhe se gostaria de morar comigo e com minha esposa, e ele ficou muito feliz com a ideia. Depois que ele se mudou, nossa casa nunca mais foi a mesma, nossa vida normalmente tranquila se foi para sempre. Foi realmente maravilhoso. Ele falava até as primeiras horas da manhã se você deixasse - todos os tipos de assuntos: política, sociedade, qualquer coisa e ele estava interessado. Ficou claro desde o início que ele era um socialista. Ele também era profundamente patriótico. Um homem mais gentil e atencioso que você nunca conheceria.

Quando ele chegou, parecia não ter a menor concepção de um avião. Na primeira vez que decolamos, Mannock, ao contrário de muitos alunos, em vez de travar o leme e agarrar o joystick com força hercúlea, olhou por cima da lateral do avião para a terra, que estava caindo rapidamente para longe dele, com um expressão que traiu o mais brando interesse. Ele fez seu primeiro vôo solo com apenas algumas horas de instrução, pois parecia dominar os rudimentos de voar com sua primeira hora no ar e a partir de então jogou a máquina da maneira que lhe agradava.

Mannock era um atirador extraordinariamente bom e um estrategista muito bom, ele poderia colocar sua equipe de vôo bem alto contra o sol e conduzi-los a uma posição favorável onde teriam a vantagem máxima. Então ele iria rapidamente para o inimigo, diminuindo a velocidade no último momento possível para garantir que cada um de seus seguidores ficasse em uma boa posição de tiro.

O fato de ainda estar vivo se deve ao alto padrão de liderança de Mick e à disciplina rígida em que ele insistia. Esperava-se que todos o seguíssemos e o cobríssemos o máximo possível durante um noivado e depois voltássemos à formação assim que o noivado acabasse. Nenhum dos pilotos de Mick teria sonhado em perseguir sozinho o inimigo em retirada ou qualquer outro ato temerário. Ele nos moldou em uma equipe e, por causa de sua liderança habilidosa, nos tornamos uma equipe altamente eficiente. Nosso líder de esquadrão disse que Mannock foi o líder de patrulha mais habilidoso na Primeira Guerra Mundial, o que seria responsável pelas relativamente poucas baixas em sua equipe de vôo em comparação com o alto número de aeronaves inimigas destruídas.

Mick tinha vinte e oito ou vinte e nove anos quando o conheci pela primeira vez. Ele estava então dois meses na França. Tudo nele demonstrava sua vitalidade, um homem forte e viril. Seu cérebro alerta era rápido, e uma coragem ininterrupta e um caráter franco o forçaram a agir onde outros se sentariam sem compreender. Fiquei impressionado com sua personalidade.

Lembro-me bem de sua última licença. Foi-se o velho brilho que conhecíamos tão bem; se foi a sagacidade incessante. Eu podia vê-lo torcendo as mãos para esconder o tremor e os espasmos, e então ele sairia da sala quando se tornasse impossível para ele controlar. Em uma ocasião, estávamos sentados na frente conversando baixinho quando seus olhos caíram para o chão e ele começou a tremer violentamente. Ele chorou incontrolavelmente. Seu rosto, quando ele o ergueu, era uma visão terrível. Mais tarde, ele me disse que tinha sido apenas um 'nervosismo' e que se sentia melhor com um bom choro. Ele não estava em condições de retornar à França, mas naquela época essas coisas não eram levadas em consideração.

Sinto que não vale a pena se agarrar à vida. Eu tinha esperanças de me casar, mas não agora.

Mick atirou em um carro de dois lugares. Ele deve ter conseguido o observador, pois o Hun parou de atirar. Atirei e acertei o tanque de gasolina do Hun. Seguindo atrás de Mick novamente, demos algumas voltas nos destroços em chamas e então voltamos para casa. Estávamos bem baixos, então vi uma chama sair da lateral de sua máquina; ficou cada vez maior. Ele fez uma curva lenta para a direita, cerca de duas vezes, e atingiu o solo em uma explosão de chamas.

Houve muitos disparos de rifle das trincheiras de Jerry, e uma metralhadora perto de Robecq abriu, usando rastreadores. Eu vi isso atingir o motor de Mannock. Uma chama branco-azulada apareceu e se espalhou rapidamente; fumaça e chamas envolveram o motor e a cabine.


Edward ‘Mick’ Mannock

Edward ‘Mick’ Mannock foi um dos lutadores mais famosos da Primeira Guerra Mundial. Mannock é considerado o piloto de caça de maior sucesso da Royal Flying Corp na Primeira Guerra Mundial. Apesar dos grandes avanços em aviões que levaram até 1939, as "Quinze Regras" de Mannock para voar em combate foram usadas na Segunda Guerra Mundial, devido à sua importância para os pilotos de caça.

Mick Mannock pode ter nascido em Brighton, Sussex, em 24 de maio de 1887. No entanto, não há registro disso e alguns pensam que ele pode ter nascido na Irlanda - daí seu apelido. Seu pai havia servido na Royal Scots e, como resultado das postagens de seu pai (que incluía a Irlanda), Mannock passava muito tempo seguindo-o. O pai de Mannock estava bêbado e teve uma infância nada feliz. Mannock mais tarde contou que quando seu pai saiu de casa, ele ficou muito feliz. Porém, sem uma renda estável, a família vivia na pobreza. Mannock teve que desistir de sua educação e aceitar o trabalho que pudesse encontrar. Um tanto amargurado, ele se voltou para o socialismo e falou em comícios em apoio ao que viria a ser o Partido Trabalhista.

Quando a Primeira Guerra Mundial foi declarada em agosto de 1914, Mannock estava na Turquia trabalhando para uma companhia telefônica. A Turquia era aliada da Alemanha e Mannock percebeu que, como inglês, estava em perigo simplesmente por estar ali. Mas antes que ele pudesse partir, os turcos internaram Mannock. Depois de várias sessões em confinamento solitário - resultado de suas persistentes tentativas de fuga - Mannock foi autorizado a retornar à Inglaterra em abril de 1915 por causa de problemas de saúde.

Não pode haver dúvida de que as experiências de Mannock em um campo de internamento o mudaram. Os socialistas haviam falado muito no início da Primeira Guerra Mundial, dizendo que a própria guerra estava sendo conduzida pelos capitalistas para seu próprio benefício às custas dos trabalhadores. Apesar de sua lealdade anterior ao socialismo, Mannock ignorou esse protesto e imediatamente alistou-se no Exército Britânico em seu retorno.

No entanto, o tempo de Mannock na internação foi debilitante e o exército o considerou impróprio para o serviço militar. Também quando criança, Mannock ficou temporariamente cego pela doença. Embora ele tenha se recuperado disso, ele teve pouca visão em seu olho esquerdo pelo resto de sua vida. Sem se deixar abater por isso, Mannock foi transferido para os Royal Engineers em março de 1916. Eles ficaram tão impressionados com sua habilidade que ele recebeu uma comissão e se tornou segundo-tenente.

Em agosto de 1916, inspirado nos contos de Albert Ball, Mannock foi transferido para o Royal Flying Corps. James McCudden, também ace, foi um de seus instrutores e observou que Mannock era um aviador nato que precisava de pouco incentivo ou instrução. Mannock foi enviado para a Frente Ocidental em abril de 1917. Ele não se interessou por outros pilotos, pois desde o início Mannock sentiu que tinha o direito de aconselhar os pilotos que já estavam lá há algum tempo. Muitos aparentemente achavam que ele deveria ter ficado em segundo plano e ouvido o que eles tinham a dizer.

Mannock fez sua primeira "morte" em 7 de junho de 1917.

Apesar da reputação inicial que Mannock adquiriu de arrogância, ele logo ganhou uma reputação diferente por ser um piloto altamente habilidoso. Em 16 de agosto de 1917, ele abateu quatro aviões alemães em um dia. No dia seguinte, ele abateu dois outros aviões alemães. Em 17 de setembro, Mannock foi condecorado com a Cruz Militar. Em outubro, ele foi premiado com uma barra para seu MC.

Apesar de seu sucesso e crescente fama, Mannock não abandonou totalmente seu apoio à "pessoa pequena". Ele fez visitas à linha de frente e testemunhou o que as tropas vivenciaram nas trincheiras. Ele ficou horrorizado com o sofrimento deles e fez anotações gráficas em seu diário sobre o que viu. Mannock também entrou em confronto com comandantes seniores da RFC a respeito de pára-quedas. Os pilotos do Serviço Aéreo Alemão receberam pára-quedas e Mannock argumentou que os pilotos da RFC também deveriam receber um. No entanto, oficiais superiores da RFC acreditavam que o lançamento de paraquedas diluiria o fervor de luta e o espírito de um piloto.

Em 22 de julho de 1917, Mannock foi promovido a capitão e se tornou comandante de vôo. Ele queria incutir em seus homens certas regras sobre voar durante o combate. Até certo ponto, suas '15 Regras 'se tornaram a base não apenas para a RFC, mas também para os pilotos de caça da RAF do futuro.

Em 20 de julho de 1918, Mannock abateu sua 58ª "morte", ultrapassando a figura de James McCudden, tornando-o o ás com maior pontuação da Grã-Bretanha na Primeira Guerra Mundial. Seu total final - mais de 70 'mortes' - foi questionado por causa da dificuldade de conectar um avião abatido com um piloto específico. No entanto, tal abordagem também poderia funcionar a seu favor, no sentido de que ele poderia ter sido responsável por ainda mais 'mortes', mas eles nunca foram registrados para ele simplesmente porque tal 'morte' não poderia ser creditado a ele. Essa foi a confusão do combate aéreo na Primeira Guerra Mundial.

Em 26 de julho de 1918, Mannock, agora um major, foi abatido por um tiro terrestre e morto. Seu corpo foi encontrado a cerca de 250 metros de seu avião condenado, o que sugere que Mannock pode ter saltado de seu avião atingido. Ele temia muito ser queimado até a morte durante o vôo e isso pode explicar por que seu corpo foi encontrado tão longe do avião quando ele caiu.

Em reconhecimento ao trabalho que havia feito para a RFC, Mannock foi premiado com uma Victoria Cross póstuma.


Edward 'Mick' Mannock

Edward ‘Mick’ Mannock foi um dos mais famosos ‘ases’ voadores da Primeira Guerra Mundial, considerado o piloto de caça de maior sucesso da Royal Flying Corp. Mannock também desenvolveu suas "Quinze Regras" para voar em combate, que ainda eram usadas na Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Acredita-se que Mick Mannock nasceu em Brighton em 24 de maio de 1887, mas não há registro disso e alguns acreditam que ele possa ter nascido na Irlanda. Depois de passar por uma infância infeliz, Mick se voltou para o socialismo e começou a falar em comícios pelo que viria a ser o Partido Trabalhista.

Quando a guerra foi declarada, Mick estava trabalhando na Turquia - que era aliada da Alemanha - e percebeu que estava em perigo. Antes de poder partir, ele foi colocado em confinamento solitário em um campo de internamento, mas acabou sendo autorizado a retornar à Inglaterra em abril de 1915 devido a problemas de saúde.

Os historiadores acreditam que o internamento teve um grande impacto sobre Mannock, que antes era socialista, mas logo se alistou no exército ao retornar da Turquia. No entanto, o exército sentiu que ele estava debilitado por sua experiência e o classificou como impróprio para o serviço. Sem desanimar, Mannock foi transferido para os Royal Engineers em março de 1916, e eles ficaram tão impressionados que lhe concederam uma comissão e fizeram dele um segundo-tenente.

Inspirado pelos contos de Albert Ball, Mannock foi transferido para o Royal Flying Corps em agosto de 1916 e foi instruído pelo futuro companheiro "ás" James McCudden. McCudden observou que Mannock era um piloto natural que precisava de muito pouca instrução ou incentivo.

Mannock foi enviado para a Frente Ocidental em abril de 1917 e desde o início sentiu que estava em posição de aconselhar os pilotos que estavam lá há muito mais tempo do que ele. Apesar disso, ele continuou a voar bem e em 7 de junho de 1917 ele matou pela primeira vez.

Apesar de sua reputação de ser arrogante, isso logo foi ofuscado por sua nova reputação de piloto altamente qualificado. Isso só foi ajudado em 16 de agosto de 1917, quando ele derrubou quatro aviões alemães em um dia. No dia seguinte abateu outros dois e a 17 de setembro foi condecorado com a Cruz Militar pelos seus serviços. Ele também foi premiado com uma barra para seu MC no mês seguinte.

Apesar de sua fama, Mannock sentiu que era importante se envolver com a "pequena pessoa" e fez visitas frequentes à linha de frente para experimentar como era nas trincheiras. Ele também entrou em confronto frequente com comandantes seniores da RFC em relação aos pára-quedas - enquanto os pilotos do Serviço Aéreo Alemão receberam pára-quedas, os pilotos da RFC não. Mannock não concordou, mas os oficiais superiores argumentaram que o uso de paraquedas diluiria o espírito de luta do piloto.

Em 22 de julho, Mannock foi promovido a capitão e tornou-se comandante de vôo. Foi então que ele decidiu que era importante incutir certas regras sobre voar em combate em todos os pilotos e ele criou suas "Quinze Regras" de voo em combate. Isso se tornou a base para a RFC e os futuros pilotos da Royal Air Force.

Em 20 de julho de 1918, Mannock abateu sua 58ª morte, ultrapassando James McCudden e tornando-o o ás da aviação com maior pontuação na Primeira Guerra Mundial. Seu total final - mais de 70 - permanece em dúvida, no entanto, já que não é muito fácil conectar uma aeronave abatida com apenas um piloto.

Infelizmente, em 26 de julho de 1918, Mannock foi abatido por um tiro terrestre e morto. Seu corpo foi encontrado a cerca de 250 metros de sua aeronave, o que sugere que ele pode ter saltado. Em reconhecimento ao seu trabalho, ele foi premiado com uma Cruz Vitória póstuma.


A Paixão e a Fúria: Mick Mannock

Em uma agradável tarde de abril bem acima do noroeste da França em 1918, os S.E.5as do Voo A, Esquadrão 74 da Força Aérea Real, estavam em sua segunda patrulha. Era o primeiro dia de combate da unidade, e todos os pilotos, exceto seu líder, Capitão Edward “Mick” Mannock, eram novatos. Enquanto seus homens observavam com os olhos arregalados, Mannock de repente balançou as asas, alertando-os de que o inimigo estava por perto, depois caiu como um falcão sobre uma formação de caças Albatros alemães. Mannock centrou um Albatros D.V preto e amarelo em sua visão Aldis, respirou fundo e apertou suavemente o botão de disparo, soltando um fluxo letal de rastreadores brancos sedosos. Os Albatros se separaram no ar. De volta ao solo, os pilotos parabenizaram seu capitão por sua segunda vitória do dia, mas o que os deixou cheios de admiração eterna por ele foi o relatório de combate de Mannock, no qual ele escreveu: “Todo o vôo deve compartilhar o crédito da EA [ aeronaves inimigas], já que todos contribuíram para sua destruição ”.

Essa renúncia era um indicativo da devoção altruísta e intensa a seus camaradas que caracterizaram a vida de Edward Mannock, um dos maiores pilotos de combate de todos os tempos da Grã-Bretanha e líderes de homens. Em qualquer medida, ele era um homem de dons extraordinários, um homem que certamente teria causado tanto impacto no mundo do pós-guerra quanto naqueles que o conheceram e amaram durante sua brilhante carreira como piloto de caça.

Mannock nasceu em Cork, Irlanda, em 24 de maio de 1887, filho de um soldado da Guarda Real Escocesa que lutou nas guerras imperiais da Grã-Bretanha. Um homem rude, ele bateu em Edward e seus irmãos e bebeu muito. Enquanto seu pai foi enviado para a Índia, Mannock contraiu uma infestação de amebas que enfraqueceu seu olho esquerdo. Esse infortúnio seria posteriormente transformado no mito frequentemente repetido de Mannock ser o "ás com um olho". Apesar das dificuldades iniciais, o jovem Edward possuía uma mente analítica afiada. Ele odiava a desigualdade e mais tarde se tornou um fervoroso socialista.

Quando Mannock estava no início da adolescência, seu pai abandonou a família e Edward teve que trabalhar para sustentá-los. Ele saiu de casa e se hospedou com a família Eyles. Jim Eyles escreveu mais tarde que Mannock era uma pessoa “com ideais elevados e com um grande amor por seus companheiros mortais. Ele odiava crueldade e pobreza & # 8230.Um homem mais gentil e atencioso que você nunca conheceria. ” Parece provável que Mannock pudesse ter ascendido no Partido Trabalhista, pois era um excelente orador. Mas a próxima conflagração global logo destruiria suas grandes ambições.

Quando a guerra foi declarada em agosto de 1914, Mannock trabalhava para uma empresa britânica em Constantinopla. Como o Império Otomano ficou do lado da Alemanha, ele e outros cidadãos britânicos foram jogados em campos de prisioneiros, onde enfrentaram condições terríveis. Mannock rapidamente desenvolveu um ódio pelos turcos e alemães. Em abril de 1915, com a ajuda de Jim Eyles, ele foi repatriado. Pouco depois, Mannock ingressou no Royal Army Medical Corps e, em seguida, no Royal Engineers, onde foi nomeado segundo-tenente. Mas ele foi imediatamente transferido para o Royal Flying Corps (RFC) em agosto de 1916, para que pudesse se envolver mais na luta.

Apesar de seu olho esquerdo fraco, Mannock foi aprovado no exame médico. Ele era aparentemente um piloto nato com um excelente tato para sua máquina. Um de seus instrutores, recém-chegado de um voo de combate na França, foi o craque Capitão James McCudden. Os dois se davam bem e McCudden causou grande impacto em seu aluno. “Mannock”, escreveu McCudden, “foi um exemplo típico do jovem irlandês impetuoso, e sempre pensei que ele fosse o tipo de pessoa que faz ou morre”. Ele faria as duas coisas na França.

Com seu treinamento de vôo concluído, em 6 de abril de 1917, Mannock foi destacado para o Vôo C no Esquadrão No. 40, que estava pilotando o caça Nieuport 17 de construção francesa altamente manobrável, armado com uma metralhadora Lewis montada acima da asa superior. Uma nova fase na vida de Mannock havia começado e, como sempre para ele, estava cheia de desafios. Ele causou uma péssima primeira impressão em sua nova casa e irritou quase todo mundo, deixando de apreciar a atmosfera de uma escola pública de um esquadrão da RFC. O tenente Lionel A. Blaxland, um companheiro de esquadrão, lembrou que Mannock “parecia muito arrogante para sua experiência, que era nula & # 8230. Ele ofereceu ideias sobre tudo: como a guerra estava indo, como deveria ser combatida, o papel dos pilotos escoteiros. ” Ele também quebrou várias regras não escritas da etiqueta do piloto, perguntando aos camaradas quantos “hunos” eles haviam abatido e - um terrível gafe - sentando no assento anteriormente ocupado por um piloto que acabara de ser morto.


Mannock está sentado na cabine de seu Nieuport 17 do Esquadrão 40, Royal Flying Corps, que ostentava um spinner pintado de amarelo para criticar seus companheiros de esquadrão que o consideravam tímido em combate. (Cortesia de O'Brien Browne)

Para piorar as coisas, Mannock passava horas praticando tiro ao alvo, mas parecia hesitante ao confrontar aviões inimigos sobre as linhas. Ele registrou suas emoções em sua primeira patrulha de combate em seu diário em 13 de abril de 1917: “Passei pelas linhas pela primeira vez, escoltando FEs [aviões de reconhecimento Farman Experimental F.E.2b]. Fortemente ‘Arqueado’. Meus sentimentos são muito engraçados. ” Na verdade, o piloto novato que falava tanto na confusão ficou com muito medo. Em voos subsequentes, Mannock foi visto como tímido diante do inimigo - "ventoso" ou "perdendo o fôlego", na gíria do piloto. Alguns de seus companheiros de esquadrão começaram a evitá-lo e a falar sobre ele pelas costas. O esquadrão logo foi dividido entre seus apoiadores e detratores.

Seus detratores só podiam ser silenciados por atos. Eles tiveram um gostinho da coragem de Mannock em 19 de abril quando, enquanto praticavam mergulho em um alvo terrestre a 2.000 pés, a asa direita inferior de seu Nieuport quebrou e o avião mergulhou para baixo. Mannock de alguma forma conseguiu pousar a nave aleijada com segurança. Após aquela demonstração de habilidade de vôo e sangue frio, os outros pilotos começaram a reconsiderar suas opiniões sobre ele.

Eles ficaram ainda mais impressionados em 7 de maio, quando Mannock se juntou a um vôo de cinco outros para um ataque a balões de observação alemães. Mannock destruiu um balão para sua primeira vitória naquele dia. Mas ele escreveu em seu diário: “Minha fuselagem tinha buracos de bala, um bem perto da minha cabeça, e as asas estavam mais ou menos crivadas. Não quero passar por essa experiência novamente. ”

Ainda assim, despedido com nova confiança, Mannock tornou-se mais agressivo no ar e agora era aceito no esquadrão, homens que antes lhe haviam dado o ombro frio agora lhe pagavam bebidas na bagunça. Ele às vezes liderava patrulhas de combate e, em pelo menos duas ocasiões, acreditou que havia derrubado uma aeronave alemã, mas não reclamou, pois não havia testemunhas. Seu grande desejo naquele ponto era obter uma vitória “real” sobre um avião inimigo, mas isso o iludiu.

Sua persistência acabou valendo a pena. Em 7 de junho, voando Nieuport B1552 ao norte de Lille, Mannock foi atrás de um Albatros D.III a 13.000 pés. Ele tinha sido a escolta voadora de um esquadrão de bombardeiros F.E.2b. Vindo por trás, Mannock disparou 60 tiros no caça alemão a 10 jardas, e ele caiu fora de controle, uma ação que ele relatou jubiloso na base.

Pouco depois, Mannock sofreu um ferimento no olho e foi mandado para casa em uma licença de duas semanas. Ele usou seu tempo em casa para pensar sobre táticas de combate e, quando voltou para sua unidade, estava convencido de suas habilidades de combate. Em 12 de julho, Mannock abateu um DFW C.V de dois lugares que caiu dentro das linhas britânicas. Encantado com a oportunidade de examinar seu “trabalho” de perto, Mannock dirigiu até o local do acidente. O observador havia sobrevivido, mas o piloto estava morto. Ao retornar à base, ele falou sobre isso ao seu amigo, o tenente William Maclanachan. “Isso me enojou”, Mannock disse a ele, “mas eu queria ver para onde minhas injeções tinham ido. Você sabe, havia três pequenos buracos de bala bem aqui ”—Mannock indicou o lado de sua cabeça. Em seu diário, Mannock acrescentou mais um detalhe, um "pequeno terrier preto e castanho - morto - no assento do observador. Eu me senti exatamente como um assassino. ” No entanto, ele enviou outro DFW fora de controle no dia seguinte.

Julho de 1917 seria importante para Mannock de várias maneiras. Not only did he score his first concrete kill, but a squadron mate, Captain George L. “Zulu” Lloyd, spoke privately with him, telling him that a few men still doubted his fighting spirit.

“Of course, I’ve been frightened against my will—nervous reaction,” Mannock forthrightly explained. “I’ve now conquered this physical defect and, having conquered myself, I will now conquer the Hun. Air fighting is a science. I have been studying it and have not been unduly worried at not getting Huns at the expense of being reckless.” Lloyd was more than satisfied with this answer. When some men still questioned Mannock’s abilities, it was put down to jealousy.


Mannock's piercing gaze hints at the complex and contradictory personality that lay beneath the surface of the World War I ace. (Courtesy of O'Brien Browne)

Another event that same month was to have a profound effect on Mannock. On the 21st he watched in horror as 2nd Lt. F.W. Rook, a well-liked squadron member, plummeted to earth in flames after being attacked by 1st Lt. Adolf Ritter von Tutschek of Jasta 12. Maclanachan remembered that Mannock later came into his hut, speaking about what was to become an obsession with him. “That’s the way they’re going to get me in the end—flames and finish,” Mannock said with tears in his eyes. Then he explained why he had started to carry his service revolver with him on flights: “to finish myself as soon as I see the first sign of flames.”

The next day Mannock was awarded the Military Cross for his “very fine offensive spirit and great fearlessness attacking the enemy at close range and low altitudes under heavy fire from the ground.” Major General Hugh M. Trenchard, commander of the RFC, even sent his personal congratulations. Soon after that Mannock was made leader of A Flight.

Although taking responsibility did not come easily to Mannock, his score now rose dramatically. He had sharp eyesight and was a magnificent shot. In August alone he was credited with four Albatros D.Vs and one DFW. By the end of 1917, he had 15 confirmed victories under his belt and had received a Bar to his MC. He was becoming an excellent flight leader, fighting with tactics rather than sheer audacity. He also had a sense of humor he once used a pair of women’s silk stockings on his struts for leader’s streamers.

Mannock looked after the men who flew with him with fatherly compassion and patience, helping them develop into successful combat pilots. If a man was killed, Mannock took it very hard, often retiring to his hut, sobbing and “keening”—mourning by rocking back and forth, as was done in ancient Ireland. Although combat intensified his hatred for the Germans, he was revolted on September 4 when he flamed a DFW. “It was a horrible sight,” Mannock wrote in his diary, “and made me feel sick.”

But that same flight illustrated Mannock’s superb tactics. As noted in his diary, he had had trouble recognizing the two-seater’s national markings at first. “So I turned my tail towards him,” Mannock related, “and went in the same direction, thinking that if he were British he wouldn’t take notice of me, and if a Hun I felt sure he would put his nose down and have a shot (thinking I hadn’t seen him). The ruse worked beautifully. His nose went (pointing at me), and I immediately whipped round, dived and ‘zoomed’ up behind him before you could say ‘knife.’ He tried to turn but he was much too slow for the Nieuport. I got in about 50 rounds in short bursts whilst on the turn and he went down in flames.”

On October 17, 1917, the squadron was delighted to receive the RFC’s new British-made fighter, the Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5a. This was a powerful aircraft, faster and tougher than the nimble Nieuport. The pilots loved them at first, especially their double armament—a synchronized Vickers machine gun and an over-wing Lewis—which at long last put them on a par with the Germans. They soon found out that this machine was having teething troubles, however, including gun jams and engine failures. The squadron suffered more than 20 such incidents in a two-week period.

By December, after 10 months of continuous air fighting, Mannock was worn out. Maclanachan described him as tense and noted that he often “brought up the subject of catching fire in the air.” On January 1, 1918, Mannock shot down another DFW and was informed that he was being sent back to England to serve as a flight trainer. That night at his farewell party, Lieutenant W. Douglas remembered, Mannock rose and “entertained us to one of his marvelous speeches,” full of giving the Hun hell and injecting “jokes about one or other of his comrades going down in flames or crashing in some other horrible way.” The commander of No. 40 Squadron, Major L.A. Tilney, wrote in the unit’s diary, “His leadership and general ability will never be forgotten by those who had the good fortune to serve under him.”

Back in England, Mannock was posted on February 2 to London Colney as a flight commander at No. 74 Squadron, which was in training. The unit was suffering from low morale, apparently due to unmotivated instructors. Mannock electrified the disheartened pilots. He was a natural teacher and a powerful speaker, and his lectures on aerial combat were always fully attended. “Gentlemen,” he told his men, “always above seldom on the same level never underneath.” His practical advice was priceless and would save lives at the front. “Don’t ever attempt to dog-fight a triplane on anything like equal terms as regards height,” he warned, “otherwise he will get on your tail and stay there until he shoots you down.” He also told his pilots never to follow a victim too close to the ground, because they might be hit by fire from the trenches.

To motivate his men, Mannock—much like a football coach—affected a “kill-all-the-bloody-Huns” persona that later gave birth to another hoary myth about his being a “Hun-hater,” which would have appalled him. In fact his diary reveals his respect for his opponents. Concerning a two-seater that escaped him in early September 1917, Mannock wrote, “He deserved to get away really, as he must have been a brave Hun.” In an earlier dogfight in which the British outnumbered the Germans 2-to-1 but could not bring one down, Mannock noted, “I shall always maintain an unsullied admiration for those Huns.” Major Keith L. “Grid” Caldwell, No. 74 Squadron’s New Zealand–born commanding officer, recalled that “Mick was a very human, sensitive sort of chap he did not hate people or things at all….I believe that this hatred was calculated or assumed to boost his own morale and that of the squadron in general.”

In April 1918, Mannock and No. 74 Squadron landed their S.E.5as at their new aerodrome in France, Clairmarais North. Mannock was eager to fight. Leading A Flight on April 12, he scored a double kill over Albatros D.Vs, the unit’s first victories. In the next three months or so, he would increase his victory list by an amazing 33, not counting those he did not claim or gave away to fellow pilots to pump up their self-confidence—a habit with him. Under his leadership, No. 74 came to be known as the “Tiger Squadron,” and his men reverently called him the “Iron Man.”

Mannock took it as his responsibility to protect the members of his flight and often guided them over the lines. “It was wonderful to be in his Flight” remembered one young pilot, “to him his Flight was everything and he lived for it. Every member had his special thought and care.” Mannock gave them vital advice on how best to deal with the enemy. “He placed gunnery before flying,” recalled Lieutenant Ira “Taffy” Jones, a close friend. “Good flying has never killed a Hun yet,” Mannock pointed out. Moreover, he would set up kills for inexperienced pilots. Lieutenant Henry E. Dolan related how Mannock had shot up a German two-seater and then “nodded at me to get it. I went down on the Hun’s tail and saw that Mick had killed the gunner, and I could attack safely.”

With his piercing blue eyes and his trademark affectations, a long-stemmed pipe and a cane, Mannock was famous along the front. He had, recalled Jones, “an intriguingly complex nature. It fluctuated so,” for Mannock could be ruthless as a fighter, boyish in the mess, harsh with his pilots’ mistakes, gentle and complimentary for good work, morbid when depressed. Once Mannock dived repeatedly on a crashed German two-seater, firing at the crew. Asked about this later, he growled, “The swines are better dead—no prisoners for me.”

On May 21, Mannock brought down four German planes—three Pfalz D.IIIs and a Hannover two-seater—and the next day was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. Before the month was out, he flamed eight new victims. After such victories, he would burst into the mess shouting, “Sizzle, sizzle, sizzle, wonk woof!” to boost morale. But privately he expressed darker thoughts. By the middle of June, Jones noticed that Mannock’s nerves were “noticeably fraying. He was now continually talking about being shot down in flames.” Writing to his sister, Mannock said, “I am supposed to be going on leave, (if I live long enough)….” He was fighting depression and plagued by dreams of burning aircraft.

On June 18, Mannock sailed home for leave in England. Upon his arrival he was informed that he had been promoted to major and given command of No. 85 Squadron, previously led by Canadian ace Major William A. “Billy” Bishop, and that he also had been awarded a Bar to his DSO. He reacted with indifference to the news.

After spending a brief but painful time with his mother, an alcoholic, Mannock went to stay with his friend Jim Eyles, who saw that he “had changed dramatically. Gone was the old sparkle we knew so well gone was the incessant wit. I could see him wring his hands together to conceal the shaking and twitching.” One day, as the time approached for Mannock to return to the war, “he started to tremble violently. This grew into a convulsive straining. He cried uncontrollably….His face, when he lifted it, was a terrible sight. Saliva and tears were running down his face he couldn’t stop it.” Given his condition, 31-year-old Mannock should never have been sent back to the front. But back he went.

Back in France again, Mannock took command of No. 85 Squadron on July 5, 1918, and his arrival was seen as a godsend. He immediately set to work teaching his new men about aerial tactics. Two days after his arrival he got two Fokker D.VIIs as his new squadron mates, infected by his enthusiasm, brought down an additional three. Within a matter of days, Mannock’s personality had completely transformed the unit. He threw himself into his work and even enjoyed a respite from the nightmares and depression. It would not last long.


Members of No. 85 Squadron who Mannock mentored to greater exploits included New Zealander Malcolm C. McGregor (11 victories, fifth from left) and Americans Lawrence K. Callahan (5 victories, seventh) and Elliott White Springs (12 victories, eighth). New Zealander Donald C. Inglis (sixth from right), the last man to see Mannock alive, afterward lamented­, “The bastards killed my major.” (IWM Q 12050)

On July 10, Mannock heard that his friend James McCudden had been killed in a flying accident, news that hurled Mannock back into depression but also spurred him to a furious killing spree. He shot down six aircraft between July 14 and 26. But he was also taking risks and ignoring his own teachings. Often he followed a victim down to spray the wreckage with bullets. He led his flights with rage and flew solo patrols in his hunt for Germans. Premonitions of death haunted him. In his last letter to his sister he wrote, “I feel that life is not worth hanging on to.” And Ira Jones found him unstable, noting: “One minute, he’s full out. The next he gives the impression of being morbid and keeps bringing up his pet subject of being shot down in flames.”

Early in the morning of July 26, 1918, Lieutenant Donald Inglis walked into the mess where Mannock was smoking his pipe and playing “Londonderry Air” on the gramophone. The two were to fly a morning patrol together. Earlier, Mannock had asked the rookie pilot, “Have you got a Hun yet, Inglis?” and to his negative answer replied, “Well come on out and we will get one.” Mannock told Inglis that they would hunt for a two-seater. Once it was located, Mannock would attack first, with Inglis coming in behind to finish the enemy off and thus get his first kill.

At 5:30 a.m. over Merville, Mannock dived on a two-seater at about 5,000 feet. He knocked out the observer and pulled away, letting Inglis come from underneath, firing into the gas tank. The German plane burst into flame, with the two S.E.5as very low over the ground. Violating his own teaching, Mannock circled the burning wreck twice. Then, as Inglis later wrote in his combat report, “I saw Mick start to kick his rudder and realized we were fairly low, then I saw a flame come out of the side of his machine it grew bigger and bigger. Mick was no longer kicking his rudder his nose dropped slightly, and he went into a slow right-hand turn round, about twice, and hit the ground in a burst of flame.” Mannock’s S.E.5a had been brought down by groundfire. Inglis’ plane was shot up, too, and he crash-landed in the British lines, sputtering: “The bastards killed my major. They killed Mick.”

It is impossible to know if Mannock shot himself as he had always threatened to do. Most likely, given the way his plane flew after he was hit, he was either wounded, unconscious or dead. In any event, some unknown German soldier buried the ace after first retrieving Mannock’s ID discs, pistol, notebook and other personal effects, which were returned to his family after the war. These items had all been on Mannock’s body, and they showed no signs of fire.

Back at the airfield, the awful news spread quickly. Jones scribbled in his diary: “26th July—Mick is dead. Everyone stunned. No one can believe it. I can write no more today. It is too terrible.”

In the years after the war, Eyles and others attempted to locate Mannock’s grave, which had been obliterated by shelling. Some researchers believe he lies in the grave of an unknown British aviator near La Pierre-au-Beure. In addition, his friends campaigned for him to be awarded Britain’s highest decoration, the Victoria Cross, which was conferred on July 18, 1919.

A final apocrypha is Mannock’s victory score, which most books give as 73—a number dreamed up by his admirers (above all Jones), many of whom disliked Billy Bishop, who finished the war with 72 kills. According to the most reliable estimates, Mannock brought down 61 enemy aircraft—not counting, of course, the many victories he gave away or did not claim—which makes him Britain’s second-highest scoring ace of the war.

Mannock’s deeply felt emotions, the immense fears and obstacles he faced and the manner in which he overcame them, his achievements, his unconventionality and his great promise all make him vividly human and bring home the tragedy of the lives lost in World War I. The way Mannock touched people was extraordinary. “I was awed by his personality,” wrote Maclanachan after first meeting Mannock. “He was idolized by all who came into intimate contact with him,” recalled another pilot. “He was a man among men,” added a third, while long after the war another remembered Mannock as “a warm, lovable individual of many moods and characteristics. I shall always salute his memory.”

O’Brien Browne writes from Heidelberg, Germany. Leitura adicional: Mick: The Story of Major Edward Mannock, by James M. Dudgeon or Victoria Cross: WWI Airmen and Their Aircraft, by Alex Revell.

This article by O’Brien Browne was originally published in the July 2007 issue of História da Aviação. Para mais artigos excelentes, inscreva-se em História da Aviação revista hoje!


The Open University has enlisted the help of a photograph restoration expert, to 'colourise' some of the unique and interesting photos that were taken during the time. Although the original images were only available in black and white, colour has been added retrospectively to help bring them to life. http://www.openuniversity.edu/news/news/world-war-1-in-colour-photos

Photos issued by the Open University of a coloured in and the original picture showing a group of soldiers advance from a trench, over a protective sandbag wall (circa 1915). To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of war, The Open University has enlisted the help of a photograph restoration expert, to 'colourise' some of the unique and interesting photos that were taken during the time. Although the original images were only available in black and white, colour has been added retrospectively to help bring them to life

On another occasion Mannock started crying uncontrollably, although he later dismissed it as just "a bit of nerves".

On July 24, 1918 he told his friend Ira Jones by telephone: "I've caught up with [Billy] Bishop's score now - 72 [including unofficial "kills"]."

Around 5am, two days later, Mannock, flying alongside Lieutenant Donald Inglis, made his final "kill" above French skies. He considered this to be his 73rd (which would have made him Britain's highest-scoring fighter ace of the war) but his official confirmed tally was 61.

Disregarding his own strict rule Mannock then made a couple of low passes over the wreckage of his victim, leading the inexperienced Inglis into a storm of small-gun fire.

As they zig-zagged away, Inglis noticed a small bluish flame on his major's engine cowling and then the left wing of Mannock's aircraft fell away and he plunged into a death spin. Mannock had died aged 31.

Exactly what happened to Mannock is a mystery. He was buried in an unmarked grave by a German soldier, who also returned Mannock's identity discs, notebooks and personal effects to his family through the Red Cross.

Edward 'Mick' Mannock's medals

His identity discs are displayed alongside his VC, which is now part of my gallantry medal collection. It may be that he jumped clear or he may even have fulfilled his pledge to shoot himself at the first sign of flames, falling dead from his machine.

By the time of his demise Mannock had been awarded his third DSO but this too, along with his earlier awards, was only "gazetted" after his death.

After the war it was decided that Mannock's incredible and sustained courage had still not been fully recognised. After much lobbying, largely by those who had served with and under him, The London Gazette announced his VC on July 18, 1919, nearly a year after his death.

IT CONCLUDED: "This highly distinguished officer, during the whole of his career in the Royal Air Force, was an outstanding example of fearless courage, remarkable skill, devotion to duty and self-sacrifice, which has never been surpassed."

Major "Mick" Mannock VC, DSO & two Bars, MC & Bar remains a true RAF legend and his courage, like that of his fellow airmen, must never be forgotten.


Modeling Mannock’s S.E.5a

The Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5a was considered superior to any Ger­man aircraft over the trenches from the fall of 1917 until the Fokker D.VII began opposing it in May 1918. What gave the British fighter its edge was a redesigned upper wing and the newly introduced 200-hp Wolseley Viper engine (a replacement for the S.E.5’s 150-hp Hispano Suiza). Roden’s 1/48th scale kit features the markings carried by Britain’s number two ace, Major Edward “Mick” Mannock.

Construction starts with painting the inside fuselage sidewalls with Poly Scale’s “clear doped linen.” (Roden’s instructions call for this area to be painted “natural wood,” but this is incorrect.) The instrument panel should be painted Model Master’s “wood,” with additional parts of the cockpit picked out in flat black and silver. The completed cockpit parts need to be finished with a wash of dark brown to simulate wartime wear. Brush the seat with “leather,” and then dress it up with belts made from paper strips dipped in black coffee and, while still wet, draped over the frame for realism.

Spray the Viper’s radiator gloss black and pick out the cooling shutters with Floquil’s “bright silver.” A dot of brass paint on the radiator cap finishes this subassembly, which should be set aside to dry. Glue together the multipiece landing gear and paint in “British brown drab,” PC-10. Brush the tires with British “dark sea gray,” not black. (World War I rubber was not dyed with lampblack.)

Trap the finished cockpit into the fuselage and glue the right and left sections together, making sure the floor is level. Attach the upper forward section of the fuselage, cylinder head covers and radiator. You can also glue the horizontal stabilizer, elevators and lower wing pointing position on the fuselage at this point. Paint the underside of the fuselage and the lower wing using Poly Scale’s clear doped linen. Next paint upper surfaces with PC-10. When the paint is dry, flip the partially assembled model over and attach the landing gear subassembly with white glue.

Set the model aside and let the landing gear dry thoroughly. Then paint the upper surfaces of the top wing with PC-10 and apply clear doped linen to the underside. Set it aside to dry. Remove and clean up all the wing struts from the modeling sprues. Paint the cabane struts with PC-10 and the interplane supports with wood. Note the steel “collars” on the top and bottom of each interplane strut, which should be brushed with silver. Apply a coat of Future floor wax on the model to provide a smooth, glossy surface for the decals. The Roden kit, No. 416, provides all of the markings for Mannock’s aircraft as it looked in April 1918. The kit decals are somewhat thick and need extra soaking in warm water before they will release from their paper backing. You’ll also need to use a softening agent, such as Super Sol extra strength decal setting solution, to allow the markings to settle neatly over the kit’s raised details. Discard the decal rudder stripes, which don’t fit properly. Instead, paint the entire rudder insignia white (FS-17925), and when it’s dry, mask and paint equal-width stripes of insignia red (FS-31136) and true blue (FS-15102).

Glue the interplane struts to the bottom wing with white glue. When those are dry, flip the model over and position and glue the top wing onto these struts. Support the wing with paint bottles until the adhesive has set up. You can now cement the cabane struts into place.

The S.E.5a boasted a lot of rigging wires. Re-creating those requires a steady hand and patience. Several products can be used to rig biplanes, but I think the best option for this job is Minimeca (Ref. 107) .3 X 250mm stainless steel wire. Use a pair of draftsman’s dividers to measure the wires before cutting. Last, cut out and attach the acetate windscreen to the front frames of the cockpit. Your S.E.5a is now ready for display.


Mick Mannock

Edward 'Mick' Mannock, the son of Edward and Julia Mannock, was born at Preston Barracks, Brighton on 24th May 1887. Edward Mannock was a corporal in the Royal Scots regiment and the family was constantly on the move. As a child Mick lived in England, Scotland, Ireland and India. While in India, Mick picked up an infection and went blind.

Eventually Mick recovered his sight but for the rest of his life he had difficulty seeing out of his left eye. After Edward Mannock returned from the Boer War he deserted his wife and four children. Mick, who had suffered from his father's drunken rages, later revealed that he was pleased when he heard that his father had left the family home. However, the family were now very poor and Mick had to abandon his schooling at the earliest opportunity in order to bring in some much needed money. After a series of menial jobs, Mick found work as a telephone engineer.

Mick became interested in politics and as a young man became a committed socialist. Jim Eyles, a close friend later said that: "Mick told everyone he met that every man should prepare himself for the new age. The downtrodden of the world were about to get their chance at last it was a duty for men to make the best of this opportunity for which the up-and-coming leaders of the new ideas had suffered so much." Mick spoke at political meetings and Jim Eyes later remarked how surprised he was that this young man "who had been dragged up in the most awful squalor, could match wits with these high-born and well-educated classes."

In February 1914, Mick Mannock's employers, the National Telephone Company, sent him to work in Turkey. When war was declared on 4th August 1914, Mick attempted to get back to England. Turkey had formed a defence alliance with Germany and Mick realised he was in danger. However, before he could arrange transport, Mick was arrested by the Turkish authorities and put into a concentration camp. After several attempts at escape, which resulted in long periods of solitary-confinement in a 6ft. cage, Mick was eventually allowed to leave for England in April 1915.

As soon as Mick Mannock arrived back home he joined the British Army. He was soon promoted to the rank of sergeant-major, but his health was poor and the army considered him unfit for military duties. In March 1916 he managed to obtain a transfer to the Royal Engineers as an officer cadet. Although he had very little formal schooling, Mick found he could compete with his well educated companions and was not long before he achieved the rank of Second Lieutenant.

In the summer of 1916, Mannock began reading in the newspapers about the exploits of Albert Ball, Britain's leading flying ace. Ball, who was not yet twenty years old, had already shot down eleven German aircraft. Mannock asked for a transfer to the Royal Flying Corps and in August 1916, he was sent to the School of Military Aeronautics in Reading.

Mannock had a natural aptitude for flying. Captain Chapman, one of the men responsible for training Mick, later reported that: " He made his first solo flight with but a few hours' instruction, for he seemed to master the rudiments of flying with his first hour in the air and from then on threw the machine about how he pleased." Captain James McCudden, who was later to become one of Britain's leading flying aces, was another instructor who was impressed with Mick Mannock's skills as a pilot.

In March 1917, it was decided that Mannock was ready to be sent to the Western Front. Mannock arrived at St. Omer in France on 6th April 1917. At first Mannock's personality and political opinions upset the other pilots. Lieutenant Lional Blaxland later recalled his first impression of Mannock: "He was different. His manner, speech and familiarity were not liked. New men usually took their time and listened to the more experienced hands Mannock was the complete opposite. He offered ideas about everything: how the war was going, how it should be fought, the role of scout pilots, what was wrong or right with our machines. Most men in his position, by that I mean a man with his background, would have shut up."

Soon after arriving in France, Mannock heard the news that Albert Ball, the man whose example had inspired him to join the Royal Flying Corps, had been shot down and killed. The same day, Captain Nixon, Mannock's patrol leader, was also killed during a mission to destroy German observation balloons.

Mannock had difficulty adjusting to combat duties and he had to wait until the 7th June 1917 before he made his first confirmed 'kill'. Before he could add to his total he received a wound to the head during a dogfight with two German pilots.

Mannock was sent back to England to recover. Mick went to stay with his mother but was dismayed to find that his mother, like his father, was now an alcoholic. He also discovered that his sister, Jessie, was working as a prostitute in Birmingham. Upset by the state of his family, Mick was anxious to get back to France, and desperately short of trained pilots, the RFC agreed that he could return to duty.

After returning to France in July, Mannock quickly developed a reputation as one of the most talented pilots in the RFC. In the first two weeks after arriving back at the Western Front he won four dogfights in his SE-5a. This gave him new confidence and on the 16th August he shot down four aircraft in a day. The following morning he added two more victories to his total. On the 17th September he won the Military Cross for driving off several enemy aircraft while destroying three German observation balloons. The following month he was awarded a bar to his Military Cross. The official citation read: "He attacked a formation of five enemy machines single-handed and shot one down out of control while engaged with an enemy machine, he was attacked by two others, one of which he forced down to the ground."

Mannock was deeply affected by the amount of men he was killing. In his diary he recorded visiting the site where one of his victims had crashed near the front-line: "The journey to the trenches was rather nauseating - dead men's legs sticking through the sides with puttees and boots still on - bits of bones and skulls with the hair peeling off, and tons of equipment and clothing lying about. This sort of thing, together with the strong graveyard stench and the dead and mangled body of the pilot combined to upset me for a few days."

Mannock was especially upset when he saw one of his victims catch fire on its way to the ground. From that date on, Mick Mannock always carried a revolver with him in his cockpit. As he told his friend Lieutenant MacLanachan: "The other fellows all laugh at me for carrying a revolver. They think I'm going to shoot down a machine with it, but they're wrong. The reason I bought it was to finish myself as soon as I see the first signs of flames."

Mannock's fear of fire was made worse by the British High Command's decision not to allow pilots in the Royal Flying Corps to carry parachutes. Mannock believed it was unfair to deny British airman to right to have parachutes when German pilots had been using them successfully for several months. He was especially angry about the main reason given for this decision: "It is the opinion of the board that the presence of such an apparatus might impair the fighting spirit of pilots and cause them to abandon machines which might otherwise be capable of returning to base for repair."

On 22nd July 1917, Mannock was promoted to captain. As flight commander he was able to introduce a new approach to combat flying. Mannock believed that the "days of the lone fighter was past and air fighting was now a matter for co-ordinated and planned fighting units which could inflict maximum damage and minimum losses."

In February 1918, Mannock became flight commander of 74 Squadron. The next three months saw thirty-six more victories. Mannock had now overtaken Albert Ball's total of forty-four kills and on 20th July he shot down a Albatros giving him fifty-eight victories, one more than the British record held by James McCudden. In June he was promoted to the rank of major and the following month became commander of 85 Squadron.

On 26th July, Major Mannock offered to help a new arrival, Donald Inglis, obtain his first victory. After shooting down an Albatros behind the German front-line, the two men headed for home. While crossing the trenches, the fighters were met with a massive volley of ground-fire. The engine of Mannock's aircraft was hit and immediately caught fire and crashed behind German lines. Mannock's body was found 250 yards from the wreck of his machine. He did not fire his revolver but it is believed he might have jumped from his blazing plane just before it crashed.

After his death, Mick Mannock was awarded the Victoria Cross for: "an outstanding example of fearless courage, remarkable skill, devotion to duty and self-sacrifice which has never been surpassed". Mannock's Victoria Cross was presented to his father at Buckingham Palace in July 1919. Edward Mannock was also given his son's other medals, even though Mick had stipulated in his will that his father should receive nothing from his estate. Soon afterwards Mannock's medals were sold for ?5. They have since been recovered and can be seen at the Royal Air Force Museum at Hendon.


Some 240,000 Irish served in World War One and almost 40,000 died. There was just 6,000, however, who joined the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. Some 500 Irish died in the flying services.

"Irish Aviators of World War I: Volume I" by Joe Gleeson details the heroism of Irish pilots such as Edward "Mick’"Mannock.

Mannock who had 61 ‘kills’ was known as an ace, which means he had scored five or more aerial victories during the war.

The son of a Scottish corporal in the British army, his Mother, Julia O’Sullivan, came from Ballincollig, Co. Cork. Edward Corringham "Mick" Mannock was born on May 24, 1887.

Although there is some doubt about where he was born, his service papers list Ballincollig as his place of birth.

Mannock had a curious accent with an Irish, English and Indian lilt. When the war started he found himself in Turkey, where he worked on cable laying for a telephone company.

In the Royal Flying Corps, Mannock was not popular with his fellow pilots at the start of his career with No 40 Squadron due to his outspoken nature.

On May 7, 1917, Mannock barely escaped with his life when his plane was badly shot up. He had his first victory by shooting down a German observation balloon.

He showed his humility after he shot down a German two-seater, killing one of the crew.

"The machine was completely smashed and rather interesting also was the little black and tan terrier – dead – in the observer's seat. I felt exactly like a murderer,” he wrote in his biography of his visit to the crash site.

"The journey to the trenches was rather nauseating – dead men's legs sticking through the sides with putties and boots still on – bits of bones and skulls with the hair peeling off and tons of equipment and clothing lying about.

"This sort of thing, combined with the graveyard stench and the dead and mangled body of the pilot combined to upset me for a few days," he wrote.

On July 26, 1918, he took a rookie New Zealand pilot out to train him for his first kill, but he flew too low and was hit by rifle and machine gun fire and was killed. He was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain's highest award for valor.

"Overall, Mannock accounted for at least 61 enemy aircraft and remains one of the RAF's highest ever scoring aces," Dublin author Joe Gleeson writes.

"He is Ireland's greatest fighter pilot ever.

"In all likelihood, Mannock was the greatest RAF pilot of all time," adds the author, who wrote Volume 1 of a three-part series while on a career break.

"Irish Aviators of World War 1, Volume 1, Irish Aces" is self-published by Joe C Gleeson at CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, North Carolina. It is available on Amazon, Kindle and other online retailers.


Irish RAF pilot Major Edward &lsquoMick&rsquo Mannock remembered in Glasnevin

Edward Corringham Mannock, better known as Mick, was an Irish nationalist, a Home-Ruler, a trade unionist and socialist who believed that the end of World War One would finally give the “downtrodden their chance.”

It was a war that he would not see end. Instead, Major Mannock, holder of the Victoria Cross, the Distinguished Service Order and Two Bars, the Military Cross and One Bar, was to die in July 1918.

On Friday, members of the Irish Air Corps marched solemnly past a line of plaques in Glasnevin Cemetery commemorating Mannock, as a new stone plaque was unveiled to mark another of Ireland’s Victoria Cross holders.

As they did, a small ray of sunshine emerged from a largely overcast sky. Later, the boom of a drumbeat echoed through the Dublin cemetery, followed by a piper’s lament, as a small crowd stood to remember the Irish airman.

Two wreathes were placed at the foot of the Cross of Sacrifice to remember Mannock, who was born in 1887 to his mother, Julia, born in Ballincollig, Co. Cork, and his English father.

Atípico

“It wasn’t just the severe astigmatism in his left eye which made him atypical of his flying officers,” John Green, chairman of the Glasnevin Trust told the gathered audience.

Mannock, who served with the Royal Flying Corps and then the Royal Air Force, was killed on July 26th in Northern France after his aircraft was hit by ground-fire. By then, he had shot down 73 enemy aircraft.

“He was a natural born leader. He was a pioneer in fighter pilot tactics. But he was also modest and humble, acknowledging that he had to overcome his own fears and his own nerves,” Green continued.

Minister of State for Defence Paul Kehoe, who unveiled the plaque, said it was a chance to “reflect on the shared history of our peoples and the responsibility that we share to maintain peace and stability”.

Respectful

Commemorations must remember “the full context of our history” and be “inclusive and respectful of all traditions”, said the Minister of State, adding that “all narratives” should be heard in the years to come.

Speaking of the Irish who fought with British forces during the First World War, Corporal Michael Whelan from the Irish Air Corps said: “It does not matter where these men and women served, where they fell or where they rest.

“The only recourse that falls to us after this passing of time is to try to understand.

“We cannot judge,” said Corporal Whelan. “These men and women are part of the Irish story.”

Also in attendance were British Ambassador Robin Barnett, RAF Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hiller, Brigadier General Sean Clancy, and senior officers from the RAF and Aer Corps, and the Organisation of National Ex-Servicemen and Women.


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July 26: TODAY in Irish History:

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July 26: TODAY in Irish History:

1914: Irish Citizen Army members led by Countess Markievicz bring guns into Howth Harbour aboard the Asgard, in what some saw as purely a publicity stunt to rival a much heralded arms importation by the Ulster Volunteer Force. A much larger consignment was smuggled into Ireland the following month in the Wicklow area. The Howth gun running exercise developed into a level of tragic farce. British forces confiscated a limited number of guns which astonishingly were later returned because they had been confiscated illegally. Tragedy occurred when the British troops returning to barracks opened fire on a hostile crowd killing three civilians in Bachelor’s Walk, Dublin.

Howth gun runner Countess_Markievicz

1918: World War I Air Ace Edward “Mick” Mannock is killed when his plane is brought down by enemy fire. The Ballincollig, Co. Cork born pilot was probably the highest scoring British air ace of the war with 61 confirmed “kills” and some sources suggesting he brought down 73 German planes.

Mannock did not join the Royal Flying Corp (later RAF) until 1917. He was a conflicted character who although almost blind in one eye managed to pass an eye test! His early days in aviation were difficult even initially it seems, being tainted with cowardice by his colleagues, a perception he soon laid to rest as he developed fierce anti-German feelings. “I wish Kaiser Bill could have seen him sizzle.” Mannock was a gifted pilot and teacher who probably was suffering from severe combat stress during the latter months of his life.

Mannock won the Military Cross twice, three Distinguished Service Orders, and posthumously the Victoria Cross.

Edward “Mick” Mannock 1887-1918

1927: Entertainer Danny La Rue is born Daniel Patrick Carroll in Cork. La Rue would become one of the biggest stars of British stage and TV, performing in drag mimicking almost every high profile female star and politician of the day including Margaret Thatcher, Elizabeth Taylor and Joan Collins. He died in 2009.

His accolades included: OBE, Royal Variety Performance appearances, Variety Club of Great Britain Showbiz Personality of the Year (1969), Theatre Personality of the Year (1970), Entertainer of the Decade (1979).

Want to learn more about Ireland? Ver these images and more in the acclaimed For the Love of Being Irish

For the Love of Being Irish written by Chicago based Corkman Conor Cunneen and illustrated by Mark Anderson is an A-Z of all things Irish. This is a book that contains History, Horror, Humor, Passion, Pathos and Lyrical Limericks that will have you giving thanks (or wishing you were) For the Love of Being Irish

Assistir For the Love of Being Irish author Conor Cunneen – IrishmanSpeaks on his Youtube channel IrishmanSpeaks. Laugh and Learn.

This history is written by Irish author, business keynote speaker and award winning humoristIrishmanSpeaks – Conor Cunneen. If you spot any inaccuracies or wish to make a comment, please don’t hesitate to contact us via the comment button.

Visit Conor’s YouTube channel IrishmanSpeaks to Laugh and Learn. Tags: Best Irish Gift, Creative Irish Gift, Unique Irish Gifts, Irish Books, Irish Authors, Today in Irish History TODAY IN IRISH HISTORY (published by IrishmanSpeaks)


Assista o vídeo: WWI Aces Falling BBC (Junho 2022).